Turning Asynchronous Networking Inside-Out

Developing asynchronous networking applications is an interesting problem with unique challenges and no shortage of solutions for, particularly in Python. But the way you’ve traditionally had to write your code to make it work well could leave you with a codebase that, while solid, could be challenging to read or follow.

I’ll take you through a quick introduction to what asynchronous networking is, show you a callback-based asynchronous implementation using the venerable and excellent Twisted, and then finally show you how Python’s new asyncio library uses coroutines to solve the problem in a whole new way.

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A Field Guide to Lua Coroutines

Lua is a deceptively simple language. Its designers have done such a good job of keeping it downwardly scalable to simple uses that it’s easy to overlook the advanced parts. One of these is its polished implementation of coroutines.

Why Coroutines Matter

The combination of coroutines, tail-call optimization, and closures means that many sophisticated control structures can be implemented in Lua pretty easily. Rather than turning functions inside-out and nesting them inside an arbitrary primary function, untangling them and giving each its own main loop often simplifies things. Allowing individual closures to suspend and resume means that backtracking, lazy streams, constraint propagation networks, and so on can be expressed cleanly. Also, asynchronous IO can be coordinated with functions like luasocket.select scheduling coroutines; each can still be read linearly, and there’s no need to CPS-transform everything by hand with callbacks.

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